Endocrinology Research and Practice
Original Article

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches to Thyroid Nodules in Turkey


Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ankara, TURKEY


Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Ankara, Turkey


İstanbul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, İstanbul, Turkey

Endocrinol Res Pract 2020; 24: 47-54
DOI: 10.25179/tjem.2019-71633
Read: 2177 Downloads: 531 Published: 01 March 2020


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the approaches to thyroid nodules adopted by various specialists and centers in Turkey.

Material and Methods: The questionnaire designed by Ralf Paschke for International Thyroid Congress (2010) was provided to 400 (264 general surgeons, 58 endocrine surgeons, and 78 endocrinologists) physicians from Turkey. Education and research hospitals (n=110), state hospitals (n=84), university hospitals (n=122), and private hospitals (n=84) were included. An index case was provided and questions regarding diagnostic and therapeutic/follow-up strategies were asked.

Results: The index case was a 35-year-old man presented with swallowing discomfort. His thyroid-stimulating hormone level was 0.5 mIU/L. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) revealed a 13 mm right nodule (RN) and an 18 mm left nodule (LN). The most frequently queried information by physicians about the case was the result of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) (38.5%) and scintigraphy+FNAB (25.5%). Routine calcitonin measurement was advised by 33.5% of specialists. US and scintigraphy were detailed as; showed intranodular flow, microcalcification in the solid, and normoactive RN and solid hypoechoic, and hypoactive for the LN. FNAB was recommended by 68.5% of specialists for both nodules. Surgery without FNAB was recommended by 9% (n=36) of specialists, mainly by general surgeons (n=32). Specialists from private hospitals recommended surgical management for benign nodules, more frequently than state and university hospitals (p<0.01).

Conclusion: Not only invasive and noninvasive diagnostic tests but also the treatment and follow- up strategies varied among general surgeons, endocrine surgeons, and endocrinologists in Turkey. The surgical approach for benign nodules was more frequently preferred in private hospitals.



EISSN 2822-6135